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Países prohíben a las mujeres trabajar sin permiso del marido: Increíble restricción (14/03/2017)

En pleno siglo XXI cuando las mujeres parecen haber ingresado a todas las actividades posibles y que en la mayoría de los casos estaban reservadas sólo para hombres, existen aún prácticas que impiden una integración real de ellas al mundo laboral, por ejemplo, la prohibición de trabajar.

Según el informe del Banco Mundial, “Mujer, Empresa y el Derecho 2016″, en 18 países del orbe una mujer casada no puede desempeñar labores remuneradas sin la autorización del marido.


Tal prohibición fue detectada por el organismo internacional en las legislaciones Bolivia, Bahrein, Camerún, Chad, Congo, Gabón, Guinea,  Irán, Jordania, Kuwait, Mauritania, Niger, Qatar, Sudán, la República Árabe Siria, los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, Cisjordania y Gaza y la República de Yemen.

Además, el documento agrega que en 19 de los casos estudiados -la muestra incluyó 173 países-,  la ley establece que ellas deben vivir con sus maridos, aun cuando sufran problemas de convivencia. Y si se investiga un poco más en los países que no tienen esa prohibición, el panorama no mejora mucho: el 90% de las 173 economías analizadas tienen por lo menos una ley discriminatoria hacia la mujer.

Las desigualdades de género más difundidas se vinculan con las normas laborales, que son distintas para hombres y mujeres en todas las economías analizadas por el informe. Algunas de estas diferencias viabilizan la participación de la mujer en la fuerza laboral, pero muchas otras la impiden. El país con más obstáculos relacionados con el empleo es Rusia, donde las mujeres están excluidas de un total de 456 trabajos.

Ahora bien, el estudio del Banco Mundial precisa que en muchas economías en el mundo persisten barreras legales que impiden el avance económico de las mujeres, excluyéndolas de ciertos empleos, limitando su acceso al crédito y dejándolas desprotegidas contra la violencia.

El informe  “Mujer, Empresa y el Derecho 2016“, que examina las leyes que impiden el empleo y la capacidad empresarial de las mujeres, concluye que éstas enfrentan restricciones al trabajo femenino en 100 de las 173 economías analizadas.

Por ejemplo, en 41 economías las mujeres tienen prohibido trabajar en ciertos empleos en recintos industriales; en 29 economías se les prohíbe trabajar de noche y en 18 economías no pueden obtener un empleo sin el permiso de sus esposos. Sólo en la mitad de las economías analizadas existe la licencia por paternidad, y menos de la tercera parte cuenta con licencias parentales, lo cual limita las posibilidades de los hombres de compartir responsabilidades en la crianza de los hijos. En 30 economías, las mujeres casadas no pueden elegir dónde vivir y en 19 economías están obligadas por ley a obedecer a sus esposos.


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